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הידעת? הדפדפן שהינך גולש ממנו אינו עדכני

הדפדפן שהינך גולש ממנו אינו עדכני ויתכן שהאתר אינו יעבוד בצורה טובה. הדפדפנים הנתמכים באתר הם:

לחץ על האיקונים למעבר לדף ההורדה של הדפדפן

סגירת חלונית אל תציג בשנית

בסגירת החלונית תועבר/י לאתר מותאם לדפדפן ויתכן כי חלק מהאתר לא יעבוד בצורה מיטבית

Crime Scene: Offender, Victim and Bystander - English abstracts

הדפסה דוא

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

English abstract                                                                           

crime scene2

THIS  PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 

 

Group therapy for juvenile offenders that
incorporates adventure therapy
Al'Halim Saud Abed

Adult Probation Services, Haifa, Israel
sauda@molsa.gov.il

Teenage offenders constitute a unique and challenging group. The lecture will describe traditional group therapy sessions that were held over the course of two years. Participants' progress was slow and strewn with crises and behavioral issues. The introduction of adventure therapy led to a significant improvement in therapy results and facilitated change among the group's participants. Adventure therapy includes strenuous hikes, occasionally in extreme conditions, and physical, emotional, behavioral and cognitive challenges. Patients encounter unfamiliar situations that they are forced to deal with in real time, with on-the-spot treatment intervention. Outdoor activity and the effort it requires reveal a profound world of content, new stimuli that arouse sensitivities, and connection to feelings that are often well hidden and protected in everyday life, and which often remain suppressed in the treatment room. Main Points of the Program: 1. The group is part of an Adventure Therapy Project that incorporates occasional hikes alongside group discussions in the therapeutic setting. 2. Adventure Therapy includes a structured process in which common and individual goals are set. 3. The Adventure Therapy activity relates to group and individual goals with regard to issues relevant to juvenile offenders – boundaries, risk situations, decision making, responsibility for committing the offense, empathy, communication, interpersonal relationships, etc. 4. Upon their return to the treatment room, group members process their outdoor experiences and the changes they brought about using visual documentation of the activity. The lecture will present the rationale behind the program, the group's activity, and will describe the method in which Adventure Therapy contributes to the advancement of therapy and rehabilitation and to preventing recidivism among participating offenders.

 

Must persons with mental disabled people be victims of violence?
Aminadav Chaia
Ariel University, Israel
chaiaaminadav@yahoo.com

 

Studies show that individuals with mental disabilities experience acts of violence four to ten times more frequently than do average individuals within the same society. Individuals with mental disabilities are in fact more frequently victimized than are individuals with any other type of disability. Interpersonal violence inflicted on mentally disabled persons comes in several forms and includes physical or sexual assault. The body of literature argues that risk of victimization is inherent to mentally disabled individuals and to their surroundings. Studies suggest that these individuals are physically and mentally controlled by others, mainly family members and caregivers. They also learn to be compliant and not to question others in authority. Moreover, most offenders are known and trusted by the victim. They include natural family members, neighbours, family friends and caregivers. Bystanders who witness violence against mentally disabled persons often remain silent because they are associated with the offenders (other family members, staff etc.). Hence, the literature describes a tragic circle of violence that is rooted in the nature of mental disability.
Contrary to this view, and after a long-term professional involvement with numerous mentally disabled individuals, we concluded that continuous violence is avoidable. Mentally disabled individuals have problems with formal and spontaneous learning. This causes their ego to be "exposed" and a breach of their privacy. They adapt to the expectation of their environment to remain dependent, helpless and unable to make choices or to identify dangerous or harmful situations.
We argue that providing mentally disabled individuals with the important tools that we learn spontaneously can make the difference between being helpless victims or self-protecting individuals. This includes assertiveness and choice-making skills, information on human and civil rights, sex education and encouraging a sense of privacy. We have several years of experienced and success in preventing the mentally disabled from becoming victims by teaching these skills and imparting the relevant information to them.

 

Shared reality of abusive and vulnerable individuals: The aging experience of parents living with abusive adult children coping with mental disorder
Band-Winterstein Tova
University of Haifa, Israel
&
Avieli Hila
Ariel University, Israel
havieli@gmail.com

 

Increasing numbers of aging parents find themselves in the role of caregiver for their mentally ill adult child due to global deinstitutionalization policies. The aim of this study is to describe the daily aging experience of parents abused by an adult child with a mental disorder and the challenges confronting them in this shared reality. Data collection was performed through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 parents, followed by content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (a) Old age as a platform for parent's vulnerability facing ongoing abuse; (b) "Whose needs come first?" in a shared reality of abusive and vulnerable protagonists; and(c) changes in relationship dynamics. The findings indicate that old age becomes an arena for redefined relationships combining increased vulnerability, needs of both sides and their impact on the wellbeing of the ageing parents. This calls for better insights and a deeper understanding with regard to intervention with such families.

 

Cyber bystanders
Ben Baruch Suzy
Hebrew University & Beit Berl Academic College, Israel
suzybb@walla.com

The number of cyber-bystanders that witness online violence cannot be accurately estimated and could be infinite, as opposed to face-to-face violence (Trblos, Brett, Hayman & Sun, 2011). Eyewitness testimonies can be vital for exposing criminals and bringing them to justice. Thus, witness questioning requires unique expertise to increase their awareness and recognition of the importance of their role in the case and the importance of their testimony in bringing criminals to justice. Should a witness voluntarily contact an investigator with an offer to testify about a crime s/he has witnessed, the investigator should investigate his/her motive, which may be good citizenship, concern, desire to improve society, revenge, or to attracting public attention.

The crime may have been witnessed in the virtual (social networks) or the real world. In the modern virtual age, extensive use of social networks is made for committing crimes. Social networks are increasingly being used in violent crimes among adolescents, which I will focus on in my presentation, using a case study. Witnesses (cyber-bystanders) of online violence play a significant role. They are active observers of text messages, and in some cases they actively participate in the violent event as forwarders or responders. Cyber-bystanders face an internal dilemma - while the violent offense committed by the group raises an ethical and moral issue, witnesses in the offending group wish to make a positive impression on their peers, and not be ostracized for snitching or cooperating with the police. The impact of violent attacks, whether online or in real life, is more harmful on victims if witnessed by others. Many youths fear falling victim to bullying in social networks, as these may be witnessed by their friends and harm their popularity and social status. Witnesses play a crucial role in rescuing victims. They are the only ones who know about students who have fallen victim to online bullying (as victims rarely share such experiences with their parents), and may be able to persuade offenders to cease the attacks in the early stages. The presence of witnesses could be positive and essential to locating and helping victims. However, the witnesses' willingness to cooperate with the police and to testify depends on the response of other witnesses to the event. Thirty-five years as a police investigator taught me that these factors affect witness willingness to testify, even after the violent act has ended. Peer groups in the virtual world also have a crucial influence on the outcome of criminal cases in the real world. The two worlds have united into a new reality in which witness roles and influences in the criminal and social context are changing. The presentation will include an illustrative case study.

 

Recapturing terrorism and trauma in American and Israeli
films and TV-series after 9/11
Ben Moshe Yael
University of Haifa, Israel
jael1978@gmail.com

 

The strong point of artistic expression that illustrates crisis situations lies in its ability to bring to light burning and sensitive issues that are suppressed or obscured in real life. Films and TV-series depicting terrorism create an interpretive framework for both those who have experienced it and those who have not (Alexander 2004), and these fictional depictions influence people's perceptions of such experiences. In this study I argue that in the reconstruction process, rather than indicating suppression (Morag 2008), the detachment of "fireballs" as a key event in the plot enables filmmakers to expand on the discourse on trauma and post-trauma. In particular, Israeli filmmakers transpose the discourse on terrorism and trauma by using juxtaposition – for example, between the will to remember and the need to move on, or between eternity and the fleeting moment. On the other hand, American films use personal experiences to symbolize collective, national ones, and construct trauma in time frames that cut off the past in order to set the present free. Such films share the conviction that trauma is a subjective matter of a socially problematic and complex reality that symbolizes and integrates parallel elements, such as the private and the collective, the real and the fictional, suppression and commemoration, thus structuring our worldview. This paper explores and elucidates different socio-cultural approaches in post-9/11 fictional representations of terrorism and trauma in Israeli and American TV-series and films. It illuminates the relationship between the cinematic image of terrorism, the notion of trauma it encompasses, and the cultural ethos of each of the societies where these representations are transposed and created.

 

Dilemmas in a crime scene:
The researcher as participant-observer
Bonny-Noach Hagit
Ariel University & Beit Berl College, Israel
hagitbo@gmail.com

&
Toys Sharon
Ariel University, Israel

 

What occurs during ethnographic-criminology research when researchers' conduct studies on a criminal or deviant culture as participant-observers? Should researchers continue to be "flies on the wall" even when they expect cases of deviation and delinquency, or should they get involved and change reality? We would like to present and share various ethical & legal dilemmas and issues from our experience as participant observers in the open drug and prostitution scene that exists in the Tel Aviv Central Bus Station. It is in a high-crime area, with a large concentration of drug addicts, prostitutes and homeless people. While conducting ethnographic research over the years, we have witnessed, observed or heard of various illicit activities. Although we prepare ourselves when we enter the research field, we do not always know how to act when we encounter these illicit activities. Should we intervene to prevent deviant and criminal behavior in the research field? Should we stay or leave the scene at these moments? Is the role of the researcher to prevent crime, or to summon the police? Where is the thin line between being a researcher and being a bystander? As participant observers, we discovered something about ourselves as human beings and as researchers. Ultimately, we do get involved - by writing the recommendations and conclusions of our study. It has become important for us to change the harsh and present reality that we encounter in the Tel Aviv's Central Bus Station.

 

Mirrors on the wall: Identification and confrontation in group processes with male batterers in prison
Buchbinder Eli
University of Haifa, Israel
ebuchbin@research.haifa.ac.il
&
Enosh Guy
University of Haifa, Israel

 

Literature describing treatment of men incarcerated for interpersonal violence (IVP) is scarce. The goal of the current study is to describe and analyze inmates' group experiences in a special treatment unit in a prison in Israel. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 20 inmates serving time for IPV: 10 Jewish, 8 Muslim, and 2 Druze. Ages ranged from 32-55. The interviews focus mainly on perceptions of and experiences in the program and its impact on the inmates. A general thematic analysis approach was used to assess the data. Results showed two major themes depicting personal developmental processes relating to group impact that emerged from the interviews. The first was a sense of identification with life-stories of other inmates, facilitating reflective processes with regard to their own violent behavior. The second process was the transformation of a hostile/humiliated position to an accepting position vis-à-vis group feedback. Findings highlight the dialectical change processes in behaviors, emotions and cognition in their relationships with other inmates.

 

"Leave any prudish attitude in your hotel room": Textual analysis of accounts of not sexually involved travelers who visit red-lights hotspots in Bangkok
Cavaglion Gabriel
Ashkelon Academic College, Israel
gabi58202@gmail.com

 

Female sex trafficking is probably the most rapidly growing form of human trafficking. Its potential stems in part from the low investment, low risk and reusable nature of the commodity itself. Traffickers and clients exploit women's vulnerabilities (poverty and unemployment) and force them into the sex industry. Academic research on various forms of prostitution in sex tourism, mainly focus on four players: women who work ("whores", "girls", "escorts" etc.); pimps and organized criminals involved in trafficking; clients ("johns", "sex tourists"); and law enforcement agents (police officers, judges and social workers). Less is known about perceptions, attitudes and behaviors of the fifth player, the bystander, the person who visits a place where explicit forms of trafficking, pimping and prostitution are visible. Bystanders turn up in these areas as street spectators, accessories to activities that involve exploitation. Their presence can be seen as a form of denial through normalization, part of a tour itinerary that includes thrilling anthropological insights or a form of innocent voyeurism, while ignoring real crimes and real victims. These tours allow visitors to pretend that hundreds of brothels and entertainment clubs are filled with women who fully consent to what is being done to them. In such instances the victims are perceived as being beyond the observers' universe of moral obligation. Different street hotspots in Thailand are considered "glitzy adult playgrounds for sex tourism". They are reviewed and commented on in social networks and by online travel sites such as TripAdvisor, which provides information and resources for the community of travelers. In includes tourists' descriptions of prostitution activities as well as their opinions, feelings and moral judgments. This paper will discuss a few preliminary results of a systematic content analysis of female and male Western travelers' accounts (a total sample of 300 comments in English, Italian, Spanish and French) of three infamous red-lights hotspots in Bangkok (Patpong, Soi Cowboy and Nana Plaza), that have been reviewed in Tripadvisor since 2007. In this analysis we will identify and discuss two forms of denial by bystanders: (1) Literal denial - when the exploitation of local women is not perceived as happening at all ("good area for shopping", "the beers in go-go bars are the cheapest"), and (2) Interpretive denial - when the meaning of an event is cognitively reframed and re-allocated to a different and less pejorative class of events (exotic streets, massage activities, a place of fun, entertainment for adults etc).


Coping strategies in times of terror
Cohen-Louck Keren
Ariel University, Israel
keren.cohenlouck@gmail.com

In Israel terrorism is considered a chronic, unpredictable, uncontrollable and deadly threat that affects the social fabric and disrupts normal lifestyle. Many citizens, even those not directly exposed to terror attacks, feel a sense of fear, danger and personal insecurity and suffer from a spectrum of symptoms associated with stress and trauma, such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. The tense security situation in Israel (terrorist attacks, missile attacks and political violence) provides a unique opportunity to examine ways of coping with traumatic stress such as a terrorism.

Many studies have explored the psychological outcomes of terror, including the way people cope with it, yet very few have examined contradictions in the literature with regard to efficient coping strategies. Some post-9/11 studies conducted in Israel found that the use of emotion-focused coping styles, such as resignation, denial, self-distraction, dissociation, self-blame and seeking social support, increases the likelihood of experiencing prolonged stress and posttraumatic symptoms, while other studies indicate contradictory result, claiming that emotion-focused coping styles are more effective than problem-focused coping style. The literature emphasizes the advantages and disadvantage of each coping style in times of terror.
The purpose of this study was to explore coping styles and the coping style that is most effective in terror situations. Findings indicate that in extreme and unfamiliar situations, such as terror, individuals use more than one coping style. They use a combination of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping styles in order to benefit from multiple strategies (to experience sense of control as well as to focus on psychological implications and vent their emotions). Findings indicated four types of coping styles: Problem Targeted (PTC), Emotional Targeted (ETC), Integrated (IC) and Adaptive (AC). The integrated coping style is unique allows individuals to switch from one coping style to another in the same situation. The adaptive coping style was found to be the most effective while the integrated style was the least effective of the coping strategies.


Youth prostitution: Who is the victim and who is the offender?
Edelstein Arnon
Ariel University and Kaye College of Education, Israel
Arnone101@inter.net.il

&
Sharabi Bat-El
Ariel University, Israel

 

The purpose of this lecture is to demonstrate another point of view regarding youth prostitution, which proposes that youth engaged in prostitution are victims rather than criminals, due to the circumstances that led them to prostitution in the first place. Youth prostitution is not new, but only in the last two decades in western countries, and a few years ago in Israel, more media coverage and social attention has been given to this phenomenon.
As the body of literature on this issue grows, more questions arise about the criminality of youth engaged in prostitution. The academic literature published in the U.S.A. and Western Europe emphasized the fact that half of youth prostitutes suffered from family abuse and had run away from home. While wandering the streets most of them revert to prostitution as a means of survival (money, food and shelter). Another finding was that many of these youth were addicted to psychoactive substances, and that prostitution was a means to finance this addiction. Alternatively, some of these youth used drugs to escape the effects of a life of prostitution. Furthermore, many youths were coerced into prostitution by pimps on the streets, or by gangs they belonged to. Following these findings, a growing number of voices have been calling for the police and justice system to treat youth prostitutes as crime victims rather than as offenders. There is also a demand to criminalize the customers of youth prostitution, based on a criminal code that already includes sections that prohibit sexual acts between minors and adults.

 

Early release of prisoners by parole boards: Aspects of rehabilitation, punishment and supervision
Efodi Rotem
Prisoner Rehabilitation Authority, Israel
rotem-a@neto.net.il


In recent years there have been noticeable changes in parole board trends, which are reflected by a decrease in the number of prisoners receiving parole. There is no doubt that parole boards, operating in the public arena, are influenced by different, conflicting political, legislative and social forces. It is even easier to imagine the influence of the public mood, the increased use of the remunerative approach in court, and less use of judicial discretion with regard to the toughening stance of the boards' rulings. The objective of the current research was to examine the social, ethical and cultural aspects of parole board decisions, and their ethical stances. Research consisted of an analysis of parole board decisions over 11 years, from 2001 - 2011. The study was carried out using mixed methods research that combines the quantitative and qualitative analysis methods. Findings showed a significant and dramatic increase in the number of prisoners whose requests for parole were denied, despite the submission of supervised rehabilitation programs from the Prisoner Rehabilitation Authority. The study found a significant correlation between socio-legal background and parole board decisions. Using a textual analysis of parole board decisions, the study focused on the ways in which the language, process and various players understand the danger posed by the prisoner. The analysis of parole board decisions showed that the existing process is a procedural, technical, cold and judicial one. The formal language governing the hearing is legalese – that of the legal representative and the parole board chairperson, who is a judge. The qualitative analysis showed that in general the language of parole boards is used as an instrument to construct dangerousness, which is the main focus of discussion in parole board hearings. The study also found that the rejection of prisoner release by parole boards was governed mainly and most frequently by the dangerousness principle.

 

The partner of the abuser in incest abuse: Unwitting bystander, passive complier or active participant?
Epstein Robert
Israeli Prison Service
epsteinhenry@hotmail.com


Incest is a common form of sexual abuse, and preliminary evidence suggests that of the different types of sexual offences, abuse of a relative is more common in Israel, regardless of ethnicity or religion, than in other countries. Traditional explanations of incest have often focused on "incestual families", in which the abuser's partner may display poor adaptive functioning, personality problems or psychopathology. She may also have had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and although she is aware of the abuse of her children, she feels unable or powerless to stop it. Such explanations have dominated our understanding of the phenomenon. This presentation will look at the origins of these theories, and will seek to explore and challenge them by examining the findings in more contemporary studies that focus on the offender's personality and sexual, criminogenic and caregiving characteristics. While paying attention to the role of the offender's partner (at least according to the offender himself), clinical vignettes from the author's practice will serve to reinforce the centrality of the offender's psychopathology combined with a poor father-child bond - which may have a strong cultural etiology in modern Israel - over and above explanations which seek to place part of the blame on the abuser's partner.

 

Intercultural differences in perceptions of crime seriousness in Israel
Eshet Yovav

Zefat Academic College, Israel
yovave@zefat.ac.il 
&
Sela Zipi
Western Galilee College, Israel
zipi-sela@nana10.co.il


The perception of crime seriousness has become an important issue in the fields of criminology and sociology since the publication of Sellin and Wolfgangs' work (Sellin & Wolfgang, 1964). This perception is culture and religion dependent. Studies have found that the seriousness of certain offences is perceived differently in different societies and cultures (Serajzadeh, 2008). The seriousness of crimes is a subjective perception which mediated by the cultural context it measured in. Although there are cultural and interpersonal differences, it has been found that serious crimes of violence that result in causes death or physical damage, such as murder or rape, are perceived as the most serious offenses in all cultures (Serajzadeh, 2008). Research literature claims two types of consensus between different cultural groups. The first type is absolute consensus and the second type is relative consensus. Two groups are defined as having absolute consensus if they attribute the same seriousness to the same offenses. Relative consensus will take place when the offense ratings are equal in two groups (Stylianou, 2003). The purpose of the current study is to check the level of absolute and relative consensus between Jewish and Arab students. 500 students from five academic institutions in Israel participated in this study. 69% were Jews and 31% were Arabs, with an average age of 28 years old. They received a questionnaire that contains 13 criminal offenses such as rape, robbery and drug dealing. Participants were asked to rate the seriousness of these offenses, with 1 representing the most serious offense and 13 representing the least serious offense. Findings indicated four offenses that were perceived as being the most serious: murder, rape, children abuse and woman battering. Offenses perceived as the least serious were those relating to loss of property. Cultural differences were found with regard to most of the offenses in the rating averages of the estimation of their seriousness. The study conclusion is that partial relative consensus exists between the two groups which reflected in the ratings of serious offenses and loss of property offenses. At the same time, the differences in the rating averages in most of the offenses indicate a lack of absolute consensus.


Typology of youth at risk
Etzion Dafna, Romi Shlomo, & Ronen Mati

Bar-Ilan University, Israel
dafnaetz@gmail.comShlomo.Romi@biu.ac.il; Mati.Ronen@biu.ac.il


The absence of an accepted definition and classification of youth at risk has led to heterogeneous grouping, often preventing appropriate intervention. The proposed typology, based on research conducted in Israel, is an attempt to classify these adolescents into relatively homogenous groups according to a complete set of personality and behavioral variables. This would lead to appropriate intervention programs that could contribute to delinquency prevention.
The research tool was a questionnaire administered to 282 youths at risk and a control group of 217 normative youths. Statistical analysis indicated that a limited number of variables can correctly predict group ascription for 88.5% of the subjects in each group. Cluster analysis used to construct the typology for the youths at risk revealed four clusters:
The Suspended – relatively high scores in all positive adjustment measures, fewer than average deviant behaviors, but higher than average rate of suspension from school; The Sociablists – relatively low positive adjustment measures (except for their relatively high social adjustment), negative adjustment measures (deviant behaviors and suspension from school) markedly higher than average; The Alienated – significantly low positive adjustment measures, especially personal adjustment, higher than average negative adjustment measures; The Loners – low positive adjustment measures and especially low social adjustment, lower than average negative adjustment measures (few deviant behaviors or school suspensions).
As to the connection between being "youth at risk" and tendency to delinquency, as mentioned above it appears that different types have different tendencies: "the alienated" and "the sociablists" seem to be more criminally involved, while "the suspended" and "the loners" have lower tendency to delinquency.
The derived typology can be used to create interventions that are personality based, and thus geared to personality and behavior rather than to external characteristics (e.g., socio-economic status, ethnic group). A discussion of proposed interventions will be presented with examples of specialized programs for the four groups.

 

 

Violence in the online playground: The liability of internet service providers and website operators
Ezioni Limor
Sha'arei Mishpat Academic Center, Israel
ezioni@netvision.net.il

 

Over the past several years we have witnessed the rise of the disturbing phenomenon of cyber-bullying, consisting of various kinds of violent acts among children and youth via instant messaging services, social networks and online gaming servers. Much like real-life bullying, cyber-bullying might hold grave repercussions for both the victim and the perpetrator. It may affecting their abilities to integrate socially in school and other social circles, while putting children in danger of physical and mental damage - including the most appalling suicidal acts of children and youth reported recently, which brought the issue of cyber-bullying to the center of media and public attention.To date, successful attempts to impose criminal or tort liability for cyber-bullying attacks are rare. The traditional legal tools used for dealing with real-life bullying, or with related conducts such as defamation or invasion of privacy, do not suffice. While recognizing the importance of educational and preventive effort, it is clear that the online playground in which our children spend a significant portion of their waking hours is in desperate need of adult supervision. While parents' and teachers' access to the scene in which cyber-bullying takes place is very limited, internet service providers and website operators possess the relevant technological tools and knowledge required to effectively oversee and monitor users' behavior in their own virtual domains. Their liability originates from them being the creators of these online playgrounds and the main beneficiaries of the activity therein. Keeping our children safe and sound in the virtual sphere requires the creation of legal mechanisms that would make it possible, within our legal system's constitutional boundaries, to require ISP's and website operators to intervene to prevent cyber-bullying.


Are cults a new form of slavery?
Fainstein Haran
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
haran.fainstein@gmail.com

 

The Tel Aviv District Court acquitted Goel Ratzon of holding his wives in a state of slavery. The court's opinion was that the "slavery clause" does not relate "expressis verbis" to cults. We believe that the court's decision was erroneous for the following reasons: a) In the "Kol Haam" case, Supreme Court Justice S. Agranat stated, "it is an axiom that a nation's jurisprudence should be understood by its national way of life." Thus, the court's reliance on American precedents was wrong. b) When King Saul ordered his footmen to slay the Priests of the Lord, "the servants of the King would not put forth their hand to fall upon the Priests of the Lord". Namely, even servants have a conscience, freedom of thought, and a right to refuse the King's order. Hence, in our tradition the term "slave" refers to either a physical or a mental state. c) Albeit the court's finding that Ratzon used his wives and applied an efficient system of mental pressure in order to obtain financial support, the court's conclusion was that "Actus Reus" had not been established. The judges did not adopt the prosecution's stance that Ratzon had mental control over his wives. Moreover, the court stated that the women had previously known a way of life different to the one "enacted" by him. "No mental barrier was placed by him that prevented them from leaving". Thus. Ratzon's wives were not held against their own free will. The women's testimonies following their emancipation clearly contradict that conclusion. They were not free and in fact they lived under conditions of true mental slavery. d) Although the court acknowledges the existence of Ratzon's 50 children, it does not address the question of whether the children were held under conditions of slavery. The prosecution should have included their situation in the indictment, but instead they only mentioned it in passing. The court was obliged to deal with this matter in its judgment, but in fact the subject was mainly ignored. e) The court had a one-time chance to offer a precedent of the "slavery clause", which it missed. Instead, the verdict details a legal analysis that relied on foreign verdicts and on an International Conventions, all of which led to mistaken interpretation. The "slavery clause" unequivocally states that actual control over another person's life constitutes slavery. Undoubtedly, Ratzon had full control over his wives' and children's lives. f) It is unfortunate that the prosecution turned down our request for an appeal.

 

In their own words: Incarcerated sex offenders account for the offense
Geiger Brenda
Western Galilee College, Israel
geigerb@netvision.net.il

 

In the current study, ten of the twenty-two sex offenders incarcerated in the rehabilitation unit of an Israeli prison were interviewed to learn about their world of values and the extent to which they were able to account for their offenses and negotiate a favorable identity. Rather than discounting offenders' accounts as cognitive distortions (beliefs, attitudes, schemata), as is customarily done in group therapy, this study analyzed offenders' accounts as forms of speech constructed to bridge the gap between a normative background and deviant behavior and to mitigate condemnation. Content analysis of the interviews showed that accounts are fluid, and that the reliance on dynamic interactional and situational factors to justify or excuse the sex offense depended on the type of offense committed and on the victim's age. Interviewees convicted of child molestation often referred to the normativity of lives and the morality of their characters prior to the offense. While acknowledging the severity of their sexual behavior perpetrated against an innocent minor, they rejected responsibility for their offense, which was accounted for as an impulsive act, a one-time occurrence triggered by an unplanned shift in the chain of interactions with the victim. On the other hand, although date rapists accepted responsibility for their offenses, they rejected condemnation on the basis of situational factors in the dating situation and the chain of interactions with the victim, claiming that she had lied about her age and provoked the sex act by deviating in her appearance and behavior from the traditional date script and gender stereotypes prescribed to women in a macho patriarchal society. Consequently, rather than discounting accounts as cognitive distortions, the analysis of offenders' accounts show that the sexual act is not an isolated event, but rather the result of a dynamic chain of interactional and situational factors in which the offender and the victim play a significant part.

 

Unwanted sexual activities among Israeli high-school students: are males also victims?
Geiger Brenda
Western Galilee College, Israel
geigerb@netvision.net.il

 

The discourse on gender and sexuality, rape myths and dating scripts often cast females into the role of passive victims and males into that of sexual aggressors. Based on a self-report survey of 566 Israeli high-school students, this study explored 10th to 12th graders' experience of unwanted sexual activity in a heterosexual dating situation, and the effects of gender, age, and peer and/or partner pressure on these experiences. Our findings indicated gender differences in Israeli high-school student reports of peer pressure to engage in unwanted sexual activities on a date only among 10th and 11th graders. In 12th grade, Israeli students of both genders were less likely to experience peer pressure. Regression analysis showed that, regardless of age, dating-partner pressure was the most significant predictor of engagement in unwanted sexual activities on a date for male as well as for female adolescents. Despite the absence of gender differences in dating partner pressure to engage in unwanted sexual activities and in the frequency of unwanted sexual activity on a date, the stereotypical equation of manliness with sexual prowess often rendered male victims reluctant and embarrassed to report sexual victimization occurring on a heterosexual date. Findings concerning the lack of gender differences in adolescents' dating patterns and unwanted sexual experiences on a date demand a critical examination of the traditional construction of gender, and the rejection, as exaggerations, of the polarities in genders' roles and behaviors that saturate dating scripts and date-rape myths.

 

Forensic Victimology: Case Studies in Applied Victimology
Gilbertson D. Lee
Saint Cloud State University, USA
dlgilbertson@stcloudstate.edu
&
Jergenson Stacie A.
Bemidji State University, USA
sjergenson@bemidjistate.edu


A criminal or civil trial in the United States involves alleging and proving that a complainant has experienced an infringement of his/her constitutional rights or some sort of injury (tort). Trials involve two parties: an accused defendant (the suspected criminal), and a victimized plaintiff. Prosecutors attempt to explain where, when, and how the crime was accomplished. Often, victims are included only for their oral testimony of events or to present evidence of physical and psycho-emotional injury. A developing academic discipline (i.e., applied victimology) helps juries to make better-informed judgments by taking a closer look at victims and victimizations. Forensic victimology - a subfield of applied victimology - is the scientific study of victims as it relates to the investigation and explanation of a victimization event. The scientist has three tasks: to describe a victim's life, to demonstrate the injury, and to explain events. Getting inside a victim's life (e.g., where he/she goes and what he/she does) helps to understand where and when a crime occurred, how it was accomplished, what opportunity was afforded the offender, and the extent to which a victim may have contributed to or participated in the victimization. In order to properly interpret police, autopsy and toxicology reports, a victimologist must have knowledge of human behavior, physiology and pathology, pharmacology, and physics.
This session identifies the knowledge, skills, technology, documents, and evidence needed by a forensic victimologist to prepare for the courtroom. The authors share new tools for identifying post-mortem artifacts, for estimating post-mortem intervals, and for explaining the event timeline. The authors use actual homicide cases to demonstrate the principles of forensic victimology.

 

Prison as the crime scene: society as the observer
Goldberg, Ili (Ilana)
Beit Berl Academic College, Israel
iligoldberg@gmail.com


The prison is a closed and crowded area, a field continually bustling with incidents that can become very aggressive. Each incident is unique in character, but each usually involves three actors: an aggressor, a victim and an observer. Individuals who fill the roles of aggressor and victim may vary, but the observer is always the outside society. The climate of the prison environment is founded on a discourse of power between the group that holds the power (the prison staff) granted by the state authority, including the power to use force, and the inmate group, which is controlled by the first group and uses counter-power. A continual state of commotion pervades. Most of the inmates identify themselves as victims and act out their frustration and rage by projecting them towards the staff. A violent act is defined as an act that disrupts the daily prison routine and harms the body of another person. Most violent incidents in prisons erupt due to pressures engendered by constrained and deprived living conditions, interpersonal conflicts, control issues and drugs. In Israel most prison incidents are minor and the treatment of these incidents is supervised professionally by the Ministry of Internal Security, other government supervisory bodies and various human rights' organizations - society as the observer! In some situations inmates, agitated by conditions of overcrowding and deprivation, attack staff, or vice-versa, when the staff uses force (attacks) against inmates. Does the state - the representative of society - provide the Israeli prison service with the necessary conditions to prevent such violent incidents? Does the state take responsibility for events that occur in the prisons? When there is a serious violent incident in a prison society is quick to judge, committees of inquiry are set up to determine blame, and very often lay blame on prison staff. But is society also willing to judge itself? Surely society is also responsible for its prisons. In Israel Prisons are managed according to a punishment-security approach. Most prison commissioners are appointed after careers in the military forces or the police force - appointments influenced by political interests. Society does not consider prisons as profitable organizations, able to generate social and economic gain. After many years of service in prison, including periods as a warden, I present arguments for the adoption of a prison management policy that is rehabilitation oriented and for defining the prevention of recidivism as a social target. I will show how such a policy can save money and bring significant social benefits to society.


The Gendered Nature of Partner Homicide
Goussinsky Ruhama
Emek Yezreel College, Israel
ruhamag@yvc.ac.il

 

The most common type of domestic homicide is that of the woman murdered by her male partner. Common to the various theories propounded for understanding female homicide ("femicide") is the notion that the roots of all forms of violence against women, including lethal violence, are embedded in male sexual proprietariness, aimed at controlling the woman's behavior. This perspective, however, seems to underestimate the complexity underlying the gendered nature of partner homicide. Results of in-depth interviews conducted with 18 men convicted of murdering their female partners support the well-established observation that femicide is often triggered by the victim's decision to end the relationship. They also suggest that the murder emerges in a specific constellation that creates "conditions of risk". Risk conditions include not only the individual and the context but also socially constructed ideas about love, relationships, and gender identities. The conception of masculinity dictates power, honor, determination and control. Such conception turns one's extreme dependence into an experience of weakness and helplessness, and while a typical pattern of behavior is characterized by coercion, the inner experience has nothing to do with power and control. The self-identity within the relationship is that of the weak party. The loss of power is experienced in terms of a blow to honor and a blow to masculine identity. It is interwoven with shame and humiliation, which are exacerbated by the man's willingness to endure indignities during attempts to get her back. Feelings of shame and humiliation translate into anger and lay the foundation for the revenge that follows.
Perceptions of gender identities are as personal as they are cultural, as private as they are social. The present results suggest that attempts to explain the gendered nature of partner homicide should consider the role of a the culture in which masculinity implies power, denies all forms of weakness and is expressed in a directive that calls for men to preserve their social identity.

 

The changing role of victimology in reforming and refining the position of victims in the criminal justice system
Marc Groenhuijsen
President of the World Society of Victimology, Nederland
M.S.Groenhuijsen@uvt.nl

 

In many countries around the globe, the last decades have been characterized by reform measures on behalf of crime victims within the criminal justice system. Victims have been provided with more legal rights and with better victim services. To a large extent, these reforms have been motivated by the outcomes of victimological research. Research has revealed legitimate victims' interests and desires that were not met by the authorities operating the criminal justice system. Consequently we have seen many reforms that can be labeled as evidence based. After a period of gradual and moderate reform, some part of the pleas on behalf of crime victims have been usurped by victims' advocates and politicians who have made victims part of their right wing or populist agenda. In many instances victims' interests have thus been instrumentalized to justify a more repressive or vindictive criminal justice system. Research shows that such an approach does not serve the best interests of the victims involved – nor does it serve the best interests of society at large. It follows that nowadays victimology and results of victimological research are increasingly invoked in order to block proposed changes in the criminal justice system purportedly benefitting victims of crime. This changing role of victimology leads to new intellectual challenges in understanding victimization and the best ways to respond to it.

 

The art therapist's active bystander role in preventing violence in the education system
Harpaz Ruth
Western Galilee College, Israel
ruthsara5@walla.co.il

 

Bystanders are active and involved participants in the social architecture of school or pre-school bullying, rather than passive witnesses. Bullying has been seen as the most prevalent form of violence in society. It is at the heart of many specific types of violence. As we have found that schools are a prime incubator of societal bullying (Weinhold, 2000). Ananiclouk (2003) and Twemlow, Sacco & Williams (1996) define bullying as a triadic bully-victim-bystander interaction than a dyadic bully-victim interaction (Olweus, 1999). Twemlow (1995 a, 1995 b) offers an interesting perspective on the triadic mode of interaction between bullies, victims and bystanders: none of them has meaning without the others. Each can become one of the other two. The bystander is the co-factor for the "in balance" and "shifting roles".
The Art Therapist has four main responsibilities in dealing with bullying. 1. To identify core issues between bystanders, bullies, and victims, especially when there is a code of silence and, often, a long history of bullying. 2. To use the power of art to engage people. The therapist develops activities in response to violence. These activities are also intended to prevent future bullying. Mentalization Based Treatment developed by Fonagy (2001) is useful here to create the necessary changes in the three participants in the bullying event. Successful intervention begin with an accurate diagnosis of pathological patterns as early as when the child is in pre-school, and continue with treatment of children, families and the education system staff. 3. To engage bystanders in becoming fully active against bullying. 4. No less important than the other responsibilities, the Art Therapist must see him/herself as an active bystander. As Twemlow (1995 a, 1995 b) suggests, each personnel member can assume each of the roles in the triad of victim-bully-bystander.

 

Public perceptions of crime seriousness: A survey of public attitudes in Israel of offenses against and by foreign workers
Herzog Sergio
Ariel University & Zefat Academic College, Israel
sergio.herzog@mail.huji.ac.il

 

The link between immigration and crime becomes a core concern in the public discourse. This link became a very important political issue in the last European elections. However, to date, public perceptions on the link between crime and foreigners have been largely unexplored in the professional literature. This paper aims to contribute to the existing literature by extending the focus to public perceptions of the seriousness of foreigners' involvement in crime, both as perpetrators and victims. Because many foreigners have entered Israel, both legally and illegally, in recent decades, this research focuses on the analysis of public perceptions of Israeli respondents of the seriousness of varied criminal offenses, committed by and against foreigners. Based on the literature on seriousness of crime and on former studies, the research hypotheses are: 1) Similar ranking of offenses would be obtained for offenses committed by and against Israeli citizens and foreign workers; 2) Significantly different seriousness values (ratings) would be obtained for some offenses committed by and against Israeli citizens and foreign workers; and 3) Among the personal variables of the respondents, education would appear as a very important variable, affecting their attitudes on the issue.

 

Criminal Profiling from theory to practice – from the crime scene to the offender: A Case study
Hiss Jehuda, Dawidowicz Avi, & Berger Shemuel
Ariel University
avi1955@gmail.com


One of the main objectives of criminal profiling is to reduce the number of suspects when the offender is unknown. The profiler uses his professional experience and knowledge to perform systematic searches for behavioral clues in the investigation materials. From those findings he will make conclusions about the offender's personal characteristics such as gender, age, physical elements, ethnic's origin, IQ, education, profession, possible place of residence, criminal history, etc. These characteristics, which assist in the process of revealing and locating the offender, can save resources, including time, and may prevent more victims. If and when the offender is found, the investigator can receive advice from the profiler on effective interrogation strategies to obtain a legal valid confession. Moreover, the profiler could reconstruct the process of the offense, which would help the investigators to determine if the offender confession is genuine or false.The panelists: During the session a forensic examiner, a crime scene investigator and a profiler will present a rape and murder case of a young woman. The crime scene investigator will focus on the modus operandi, as from the scene from collecting forensic evidence. The forensic examiner will explain the process of death time evaluation, cause and mechanism of the death, and the methods of collecting forensic evidence from the body. The profiler will investigate the findings, reconstruct the offence, and create the offender criminal profile. The panelists are Professor MD Jehuda Hiss, Director of the National Center of Forensic Medicine and Chief Medical Examiner from 1988 – 2013; Commander (ret.) Avi Dawidowicz, head of criminal profiling studies at Ariel University and Chief Superintendent (ret.) Shmuel Berger, former head of Israel Police CSI.

 

The witness at the scene: Observer or not?
Jaeger Lea
Beit Berl College, Israel
leajaeg@gmail.com

 

 Eyewitness testimony is a central element in a criminal trial, especially with regard to identifying the defendant as the perpetrator of the crime. While most evidence is circumstantial or arguably (like fingerprints) inconclusive, witness statements such as, "This is the person I saw pulling the trigger" are powerfully persuasive. But did the witness really see the defendant pulling the trigger? Eyewitness misidentification has long been known to be a principal source of wrongful convictions in criminal trials. Misidentification and the factors leading to it has been the subject of scientific enquiry, and investigators, prosecutors and defense counsels should be well acquainted with the knowledge that such enquiry has yielded. Studies still show that, in fact, law enforcement personnel may be unaware of the factors that undermine the reliability of witness testimony. To date few studies have been conducted to determine how much criminal defense lawyers know. The current study is based on questionnaires filled out by a sample group of Israeli criminal defense lawyers and a control group of Israeli students. The research goals were to: a) expand on the limited knowledge on what defense lawyers know about the psychology of eyewitness testimony; b) compare Israeli criminal defense lawyers with their colleagues elsewhere in the Western world; c) compare the knowledge of Israeli defense lawyers in this field with the available scientific findings; d) compare their knowledge with that of educated non-lawyers (the students). If results show that Israeli criminal defense lawyers lack knowledge on the psychological factors found to influence the accuracy of eyewitness memory and identification, and on how identification line-ups should be administered to avoid misidentification - this calls for the knowledge gap to be filled, given how high the stakes are.

 

Offenses in the food sector and possible consequences for the victims
Kerschke-Risch Pamela
University of Hamburg, Germany
pamela.kerschke-risch@uni-hamburg.de

 

The aim of the presentation is to discuss the similarities and differences of victimization between offences in general, white-collar crime and particularity of the food sector. Typical victims are identifiable persons who have been physically, financially or emotionally harmed. In addition, the effects of violence are visible or financial losses can be measured. Compared to criminal offences in general, offences in the food sector have unique characteristics: Due to almost total anonymity, offenders practically do not take any risk of being detected or even prosecuted. Moreover, possible effects on the consumer's long-term health cannot be proved. In a globalized world the ingredients of processed food come from all over the world so that the origin of the components and production facilities cannot be traced with total certainty. When scandals such as the recent 'horsemeat scandal' in Europe surface, many consumers react as other victims do. They turn themselves into wrongdoers, justifying this with their demand for cheapest possible food, or not being suspicious and careful enough. They are the victims, who are, if not physically, at least emotionally harmed, and who may be under a great deal of psychological pressure. Religious sentiments or faith may also be a concern and people may stop eating meat or no longer be able to enjoy their meals. On the other hand, consumers lose confidence in official statements, the authorities and the government. The uniqueness of food is that it is a physiological need: no one can exist without eating and drinking. In contrast to almost all other offenses, almost anyone can be a victim. It can be assumed that everyone has already been a victim - mostly without realizing it. Everyone has to eat every day, so there is a daily risk for almost everyone, without exception. There is no substitute for food to meet this fundamental need. Therefore, the probability of becoming a victim again in the future is high, and the probability of avoiding all food related risks is low. Attempts can be made to minimize the risks, but these usually involve restrictions in our daily lives. Most victims do not recognize these offences as fraud or even crime, and therefore do not regard themselves as victims. As yet, victims of food related crime still do not exist in criminological research.


Existential positivism
Levy Inna
Ariel University & Zefat Academic College, Israel
Inna.levy1@gmail.com

 

Crime and victimhood usually do not relate to positive connotations. Nevertheless, lately there has been a shift in theoretical thinking that gave a birth to positive approaches such as positive criminology and positive victimology. These theoretical approaches stress the need to focus on positive factors that may contribute to a rehabilitation of offenders and victims as well. Both approaches emphasize the importance of social support and acceptance, and altruism as protective and therapeutic factors that may prevent offending and strengthen the chance for rehabilitation. Since positive criminology and positive victimology are based on very similar principals, the question is whether it is a possible to combine or integrate these approaches into one concept. The current presentation addresses this question through the concept of 'Existential Positivism'. This is the new approach that allows combining positive criminology and positive victimology by addressing crime as three-dimensional space that involves offender, victim and bystander.


To Tell the Truth: Evolving Legal Thought on
Deceptive Interrogation Practices
Linn Edith
Berkeley College, USA
etl@berkeleycollege.edu

 

Several recent high-profile exonerations in criminal cases around the United States have shown that deceptive interrogation tactics can lead to false confessions and wrongful convictions. However, such techniques are still widely taught in interrogation manuals and courses, and remain common among detectives. US courts have banned the most blatantly misleading promises and threats, but have otherwise been reluctant to articulate when an interrogator's lies go too far. This has left police with a sizable "bag of tricks" with which to induce suspects' self-incrimination. Where US courts reject confessions provoked by the police falsehoods, their opinions often straddle several rationales. Among their reservations are that such lies and misrepresentations produce unreliable confessions, that they deny human free will, that they undermine suspects' ability to knowingly and intelligently weigh their options, that they encourage police misconduct, that they risk co-mingling real and false evidence, and that their duplicity demeans the justice system. Now added to the legal debate are two important 2014 decisions from New York State's highest court, People v. Thomas (22 N.Y.3d 629) and People v. Aveni (22 N.Y.3d 1114). The NY Court of Appeals rejected a host of deceitful police tactics, including in both cases a seemingly truth-inducing lie that the (already deceased) victims' lives depend on information in the confessions. This research will explore whether these decisions are an aberration or part of a trend to reconsider deceptive interrogation practices. It will also examine reforms proposed by researchers and members of the law enforcement and legal community.

 

False Confessions and the Central Park Five-Jogger Case:
Confessions and Police Misconduct
Miller Elliot
Kings County District Attorney-Brooklyn, NY, USA
Emiller188@aol.com

 

Various techniques are used by detectives to solve crimes. The art of interviewing suspects is probably one of the most important. With a confession in hand, a conviction is usually assured. Confessions obtained through deceptive means often lead to wrongful convictions. Many cases have been overturned due to police-induced false confessions. A prime example is the 1989 Central Park Five Jogger case in which 30 Black and Hispanic youths were detained by the police for randomly assaulting people (wilding) in Central Park. Five additional juveniles were detained and subjected to over 30 hours of interrogation pursuant to a rape that occurred in the park at the time of the random assaults. Via the use of deceptive police techniques, the five subsequently confessed to rape on video without their parents being present. These confessions were subsequently retracted. Although the confessions were taped, the hours the police questioned them were not. One individual, the oldest, refused to go on tape or sign a confession. The other suspects implicated him. The police took advantage of the age and naivety of the suspects. In Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) the US Supreme Court noted that "a system of law enforcement which comes to depend on the 'confession' will, in the long run be less reliable and more subject to abuses than a system which depends on extrinsic evidence independently secured through skillful investigation." Many prosecutors, after receiving a written, audio, or video confession, assume the case is solved and that little if any other work is necessary. Unfortunately, we now recognize that without corroborating evidence, cases may later be vacated. Meanwhile, those arrested have needlessly served years in prison for a crime they did not commit. In "Police–Induced Confessions: Risk Factors and Recommendations," Kassin et al. (2009) concluded that mandatory electronic recording should be instituted in order to help reform discrepancies involving confessions. Reform is surely needed.

 

Community as a crime scene and a target of prevention efforts
Neeman-Haviv Vered
Ariel University, Israel
matans_h@netvision.net.il

 

Over the past two decades the need has arisen for organized activities for the prevention of crime, violence and delinquency in cities and towns, as well as the need for overall local planning for optimal prevention. This need is being filled jointly by the "City Without Violence" project and Metzila -the community & crime prevention division of the Israeli Ministry of Public Security, which are active in more than 150 cities and towns across Israel. The idea of "local planning for crime and violence prevention" is based on three assumptions: 1) Crime is not a simple, isolated trend; it is impacted by numerous environmental, cultural and social factors, and is a complex phenomenon that requires a multi-faceted approach. 2) Crime must be dealt with on a local level. Every city and town has its own unique crime and violence characteristics that differ from one place to another as well as across time. Getting to know all city attributes well is a crucial step on the way to effective crime prevention. 3) Solutions to issues can be found at the community level. Responsibility and the power to change the situation in a certain city or town are in the hands of its local authority and residents. In order to deal effectively with crime, social, physical and financial changes must be made on the local level. The three assumptions above lead to the conclusion that no two cities can implement the same crime and violence prevention program; each one should have its own tailor-made solution.
My lecture will focus on the different local variables that need to be addressed when designing local crime prevention work plans. These variables have emerged from work carried out on the ground in 30 cities and towns across Israel over a period of four years. The characteristics of these towns relevant to crime prevention will be presented during the talk, namely size, heterogeneity, level of religiosity, socio-economic status, security situation and so on. The importance of these variables and their impact on the crime prevention process will be explained and demonstrated. The need for customized local solutions to issues of crime and violence in cities and towns emphasizes how crucial local collaborations are. It is essential to have clear policies in place whereby crime prevention plans are not imposed top-down by government ministries, but rather products of collaborations between state ministries and local authorities that involve the use of professional knowledge and guidance.
"I Killed a Man" – A Group Intervention with People who have Been Convicted of negligent killing in a road accident
Nitzan-Biran Shikma
Adult Probation Service, Tel Aviv-Yaffo District, Israel
shikman@molsa.gov.il
&
Segal Eti
Adult Probation Service, Tel Aviv and Central District, Israel

 

Similar to other crises and traumatic events in life, causing the death of another demands processing and an in-depth examination of the event's circumstances and its consequences. Such an event has serious and far-reaching consequences on all levels – intra-psychic, for the nuclear and extended family, and for social relationships. Additionally, the event may result in the need to cope with physical and mental trauma symptoms. The literature shows that unprocessed trauma subconsciously increases the use of maladaptive defense mechanisms and slowly diminishes the capacity of injurers to free themselves and to continue developing in various areas of their lives. The trauma continues to trickle into and then flood the injurers' inner world and reduces their control of its content. This state leads to significant damage to their emotional and behavioral conduct and can lead to a mental breakdown. The group we lead is designed for individuals who have caused death with different degrees of negligence. Beyond that, it is heterogenic in every respect. The group offers the injurers (in car accidents, work accidents, shooting accidents and imputed liability) - a safe environment where they can to process and share their deepest guilt-based emotions related to their culpability in the death of another, and their expectations of being severely punished. Structured group sessions constitute a meeting of people who are coping with a similar ongoing crisis. It increases the feeling of universalism and reduces their feelings of alienation. Our setting and work methods are unique with regard to the number and frequency of meetings, the focus on six central themes throughout the program, and the division of responsibility among the group leaders. During the conference session, we will introduce the unique aspects of the setting and the rationale behind its selection. We will present the central themes, while incorporating vignettes from groups we have moderated over the years.

 

Restorative Justice at the Adult Probation Service
Nitzan-Biran Shikma
Adult Probation Service Tel Aviv-Yaffo District, Israel
shikman@molsa.gov.il

 

The Adult Probation Service is a national social service defined in criminal legislation, for the purpose of diagnosing, supervising, treating and rehabilitating adult offenders. The Adult Probation Service's The M0I program - Mediation-Offender-Injured - is an operational approach derived from the restorative justice doctrine. It is based on the assertion that the criminal act itself, at its core, is an infliction of harm on people and relationships, and that it therefore contains both personal and social aspects. Criminal behavior creates a severe conflict of interest between the person committing the crime and the crime victim, and in this respect creates a rift between them. The consequences of this rift are harmful to the victim, the community and even to the offender. The criminal process focus primarily on the actual act of breaking the law, while the purpose of the MOI program is to heal the harm done, with all its personal and social implications, while addressing the underlying reasons for the criminal act. Healing fractures means addressing the the injured party's emotional, social and material needs that arise as a result of the criminal act, while encouraging the injurer to take active responsibility for his actions towards those affected by them. The program offers victims and offenders an opportunity to meet in a safe and respectful space with a professional moderator, and to h participate in the proceedings of their own free will. The goal of MOI is an attempt to heal the emotional and material injuries suffered by the victim (reparations) and proceed to therapy, healing and empowerment. The lecture will introduce the main principles of the process by presenting the MOI interaction between offenders and injured parties involved in traffic accidents.

 

The perception of the general public under the public protection from sex offences law: Victim or a bystander?
Niv Galia
Adult Probation Service, Israel
galian@molsa.gov.il
In 2006 the Israeli parliament enacted the Public Protection from Sex Offences Law to provide the public with adequate state protection against sex offences. The law is being gradually implemented. With regard to the role of the public as bystander and as potential victim, the presentation will briefly introduce the three basic tenets of the law: (a) risk assessment in various stages of the criminal proceedings; (b) supervision and surveillance of convicted sex offenders living in the community; (c) the introduction of preventive rehabilitation programs. The presentation will focus on the section regarding preventive rehabilitation for sex offenders. This section only came into force last year, and its implementation processes are currently underway.
The law is designed to enable convicted sex offenders who are deemed suitable to join preventive rehabilitation programs, which include therapy designed to prevent the recurrence of sex offences, to be administered exclusively or together with other forms of therapy if necessary. Programs under the law are carried out in prisons or in the community, with state funding and supervision.
The presentation will introduce the sequence of rehabilitative alternatives: (a) preventive rehabilitation programs inside prisons; (b) preventive rehabilitation programs in restricted housing facilities for sex offenders who require round-the-clock treatment and supervision; (c) Open correctional day centers offering treatment for sex offenders at different times of the day (morning or afternoon), or in therapeutic groups in the community. The presentation will include an introduction to currently available treatment for sex offenders in the community in Israel, including recently opened rehabilitation centers for sex offenders under the law.

 

"Community Service Order" – Punishment as a Vehicle for Change" Views and Implementation of the Community Service Order at the Adult Probation Service
Plezer Azuelos Keren
Adult Probation Service, Tel Aviv-Yaffo District, Israel
kerenpl@molsa.gov.il

 

Community Service Order (CSO) has been part of criminal legislation since 1979. The decree is under the purview of the Adult Probation Service. Individuals issued with a Community Service Order are required to carry it out in their free time and to meet the required allotment of hours with no pay. The service is performed in state and public organizations and non-profits. The punitive aspect is tied to compensating the community through reparative educational punishment. Such consequences may contribute to offenders' rehabilitation by providing them with one or more of the following: social reintegration, community responsibility, contact with a normative staff who serve as role models, productive use of idle time, development of long-term skills and interests. It may also instill work habits in those who lack these (Sagiv et al , 2000).
I will briefly survey the work of the Probation Officer, coordinators and managers of the teams in charge of CSO implementation, while describing the developments in current methods. In addition, I will address the combination of CSO with treatment and supervision provided by the Probation Service, whereby therapy is used a platform for processing and delving deeper into issues such as responsibility, reparations, accepting authority, professional skills, and so forth.
Judges in Israel view the CSO as an alternative to lenient sentencing, as opposed to other countries where it serves as an alternative to prison sentences (Polak & Lazar, 1999). I will address the Probation Service's philosophy, which supports the use of this form of punishment with populations more heavily characterized by criminal traits, and will talk about the fundamental conditions required for the success of this program. Finally, I will discuss dilemmas faced by Probation Officers who recommend this type of sentencing, especially when the offense involves domestic violence and or other specific crime types.

 

Holding, containment and boundaries – rehabilitation in light of authorizations: Rehabilitation and treatment philosophy at the adult probation service
Polak Yosi
Adult Probation Service Management, Israel
yossip@molsa.gov.il

 

The Adult Probation Service operates under a legal mandate to address the needs of the offender population, with the social objective of assisting in offender rehabilitation and preventing recidivism. The Service's mission was updated and states: "Reduce the risk to society by adapting and recommending alternatives to punishment and detainment under the courts' jurisdiction. Rehabilitate and monitor offenders so as to integrate them into society, while consistently reducing recidivism rates."
However, it is only natural that synergies occur between the diagnosis and formalization of recommendations and the rehabilitation and supervision process that follows. The combination of these two elements comprises the individual's complete rehabilitation program. Probation Officers work towards achieving the goals of the rehabilitation processes under their authority, and use of this authority serves as a very significant factor in the rehabilitation process. Erich Fromm (1976), talks about "rational authority" which stems from individual characteristics and tendencies, compared to "irrational authority", which originates from the level of force used against others. The probation officer must regulate these two components while creating, containing and maintaining boundaries to achieve the rehabilitation objectives. I will briefly survey the different rehabilitation programs operating under the Community Service Order, as well as the Probation Order that includes programs like group therapy, different aspects of treatment of violence, adventure therapy, sexual offender treatment programs, cooperation with academia, and so forth. The final part of the lecture will be dedicated to group therapy, which is the service's main form of therapy. Group therapy is a long-term treatment process that allows for an intensive and meaningful process. A dialogue is formed that introduces the participants to the "crime story", which helps reduce the tendency to commit a felony, and allows the offender to adjust and integrate into society.

 

Shall we hear the victims? Crime victims- between the criminal justice system and the media
Pugach Dana
Ono Academic College, Israel
danap@ono.ac.il
Ronel Natti
Bar Ilan University, Israel
&
Peleg Anat
Bar Ilan University, Israel
This research is the first in an ongoing project, assessing crime victims' complicated relationships with both the criminal justice system and the media. Despite the growing interest in victims' subjective experiences within the criminal justice system, their experience of the interplay between this system and the media has not yet been researched. The question we attempt to answer here is: How (and if), according to their subjective perception, are the victims' individual voices heard in either of these powerful and influential systems? Following from that, we will assess how victims convey their messages and whether they consider the media as a substitute when they feel the criminal justice system has failed them.
The underlying theoretical platform emphasizes the value of hearing the victims' individual voices, particularly in the criminal justice system and in the media. This can be found in numerous theories: Victims' Victimology, Positive Victimology, Procedural Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence. The mediatization of the public sphere and the perceived media effects will all be referred to in this context, as well as legal theories such as the Expressivist theory.
The research is comprised of interviews with family members of murder victims in high-profile cases. In the analysis of these interviews, we learned how victims perceive the interaction between the law and the media, how they attempt to voice and campaign for their concerns in either system, and what their messages are. Recognizing the importance of listening to the individual victims' voices entails listening to their unique messages without using generalizations or stereotypes. Therefore the research concentrates on the victims' subjective experience and their own messages, how they attempt to convey it and to whom.

 

Organizational climate in juvenile correctional institutions and violence by educational instructors towards inmates during discipline encounters
Reuven Jacov
Kinneret Academic College & Zefat Academic College, Israel
reuvenya@walla.com

 

The study examined violence exercised by educational instructors towards inmates in juvenile correctional facilities. It focused on the impact of the organizational climate on this forcible behavior, while distinguishing between the various facilities on a continuum of two key characteristics: facility type (closed, comprehensive and hostel) and the type of treated population (boys, girls and co-ed).
The study involved 320 educational instructors who constitute this entire population in 55 juvenile correctional facilities. It explored their intervention style during disciplinary events using a model that checks three common styles: forcefulness, ignorance and providing explanations. In addition to research tools based on self-reporting that had been adapted to this study, an additional tool was devised for coordinators/directors, who assessed the intervention style of the instructors accountable to them, in order to reduce the effect of social desirability.
As hypothesized, educational instructors in closed and boys-only facilities reacted more violently and forcefully during discipline encounters, compared to instructors in hostels, girls-only and co-ed facilities. One of the possible explanations for these findings is associated with the professional pressure resulting from the gap between personal ability and professional demands, which is a main contributor to the kind of organizational climate that leads to forcible and violent behavior. The findings illustrate the nature of the therapeutic environments in the various facilities and the implications related to their degree of effectiveness. They can be applied to developing therapeutic environments aimed at facilitating maximum rehabilitation of their inmates.

 

Applied victimology – A new discipline
Ronel Natti
Bar Ilan University, Israel
Natti.Ronel@biu.ac.il
Andzenge Dick
St. Cloud State University, USA
Bensimon Moshe
Bar-Ilan University, Israel

 

Jergenson Stacie
St. Cloud State University, USA
Gilbertson Lee
St. Cloud State University, USA

 

This panel introduces an innovation in victimology, that is, the concept of Applied Victimology. Although victimology emerged from practical fields (specifically, practicing lawyers) it was readily adopted by academicians, who established it as a predominantly research-based science that generated theories about victims and victimization. As a theoretical field of study, victimology is usually identified with criminology and has been widely presented as a sub-field of criminology, even though it is interdisciplinary in nature. The growth of victimology as a science has fostered a gap between the pure academic logos (i.e., study and theorizing in victimology) and the various forms of pathos (i.e., field praxis that is related to victims and families, victim services, victim advocacy, and so forth). Within the ivory towers of academe, victimologists are typically identified as being only those professionals who study, teach, or write about victimology, whereas the professionals out in the field who are tending to victims' needs are not considered as victimologists, rather as practitioners (e.g., criminologists, psychologists, lawyers, nurses, counselors, and the like). This gap needs to be closed.
As victimology comes of age, it is also becoming a substantive field of knowledge that is interdisciplinary in nature and stands as a whole that is greater than its parts. While academics are busying themselves with research and theorizing, practitioners are learning about victims and victimization through hands-on experiences. Both groups of professionals are developing their own sets of knowledge and skills, much of which duplicates the other. They should inform each other. Bringing them together only makes sense. Thus, the creation of applied victimology is a natural development that will bring victimology to the forefront of professions. With its strong theoretical basis and a new applied direction, victimology becomes a greater whole that can improve the services provided to those who have suffered harm or loss.

 

Profiles of individuals that abstained from reserve duty
Rosenberg Gadi
Ashkelon Academic College, Israel
gadirozenberg@gmail.com

 

The lecture examines three distinct groups committing the offence of abstaining from reserve duty – the Deserter Group and two groups of Conscientious Objectors - those refusing to serve beyond the "Green Line", and those refusing to take part in the evacuation of Jewish communities beyond the "Green Line". The survey included 237 men, equally distributed between the three researched groups. The profiles were based on the Model of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), which was proven to be useful for explaining various behaviors. Our main finding suggests that there is in fact a common mechanism based on the Reasoned Action model that can explain the decision of all three groups to abstain from reserve duty. In my lecture I will present three unique profiles of individuals who abstained from reserve duty, based on the model and that include Behavioral Intention, Self-Monitoring, Values and the Subjective Norms, Socio-Demographic position, and Attitude. The lecture contributes a unique perspective for the examination of these phenomena. This lecture will also expose for the first time a unique type of selective objection based on religious belief – the refusal by soldiers to do reserve duty due to their opposition to the evacuation of Jewish communities and settlements in Judea and Samaria. In light of the above, our findings may be considered applicable to the construction of a unique coping plan that deals with the subject of refusal to do reserve duty.

 

Spousal physical abuse
Rozmann Nir
Hebrew University, Israel
nir.rozmann@mail.huji.ac.il

 

Studies in the field of criminology describe two different trends regarding victims in relationships. On the one hand, studies found that the use of violence constitutes a masculine mechanism for dominance and supremacy. On the other hand, there is evidence that violence patterns and victim rates are similar for men and women. These contradictory findings merit a closer look at the existing literature, in order to determine not only the directionality of existing studies, but also the effect size. With that in mind, the current systematic review examined gender differences, and the prevalence of the victims of physical violence in heterosexual relationships (marriage, dating and cohabitation) - as reported by authorities or field research. The analysis was limited to published Hebrew or English studies. The research yielded 24 publications from 29 countries from around the world. This review's main findings draw new conclusions. First, the frequency of known spousal abuse victims shows a worldwide increase in recent years. Second, a differential effect was found regarding the type of relationship. There is a slightly greater accountability of male victims, as opposed to women, in dating violence. In intimate partner relationships, the victim is mostly women. In marriage violence, the effect size and directionality is less clear, since some studies point to gender similarity while others show differences. Finally, effect size and directionality is culture-biased, since in patriarchal countries (such as in parts of Africa) the frequencies of victimization were alike. This review's findings will be discussed in the overall context of the feminist perspective. The implications for theory, research and policy will be discussed.

 

Wife battering in the eyes of the beholders - Jewish and Arab victims
Sela Zipi & Wolf Yoval
Western Galilee College, Israel
zipi-sela@outlook.co.il
The goal of the present study was to shed some unique quantitative light on perceptions of wife battering, using psychophysical measurement. Based on the Functional Theory of Cognition, the present study attempted to reflect schemata of violence against married women among the beholders using psychophysical measurement methodology. This methodology was used to document evaluations of the severity of repeated wife battering (Huss & Ralston, 2008). Muslim society justifies and supports violence towards women (Fikree, Razzak, & Durocher, 2005) and it occurs with more frequency in this society compared to Western societies (Akar, Ksakal et al., 2010; Gharaibeh & Oweis, 2009).
The participants were 63 battered women; 35 were Jewish women, sixteen of whom sought help from violence treatment centers and 19 of whom were living in shelters for battered women. The sample of 28 Arab women was divided evenly between the above two institutions). An intra-personal comparison was made between judgments on repeated battering, with and without an apology. In a complex experimental case study each participant was asked to imagine a series of six wife-battering incidents and to rate the severity of each attack on a 10-point scale.
Overall, a sort of compressive function was found, i.e., a reduction the increased severity of judgment as the number of attacks mounted. This trend and some differential Jewish and Arabs responses are discussed in terms of related concepts, especially psychological habituation (Murphy & Lloyd, 2007), coping strategies and socio-cultural effects.
The findings reveal judgmental differences in terms of the two types of measures as a function of cultural-religious-national background and type of institution. In psychophysical terms, habituation in conditions of repeated violence was found. Jewish women more than Arab women perceived wife abuse as a serious crime. Husband's remorse was perceived as sincere only until the third act of violence. Content-wise, the findings are explained in terms of models from the fields of coping strategies (emotion-based and problem-based) and cultural influences (western culture versus patriarchal Moslem culture).

 

Community-based treatment center for sex offenders: Treatment evaluation and monitoring of the center's graduates
Shechory-Bitton Mally
Ariel University, Israel
mally@bezeqint.net

 

The center for treatment of adult sex offenders was established as an experimental project in 2005 with the aim of constructing therapeutic continuity and endeavoring to reduce the risk of sex offenders, and integrate them in the community. The purpose of the study was to explore the efficiency of the treatment provided for reducing clients' sexual risk and for imparting alternative patterns of behavior. Findings generated by evaluation of the center's clients, as well as those generated by monitoring clients who completed the course of treatment, show that the center's graded program prepares clients for integration in the community. Yet the center's current monitoring program appears to be insufficient, as information on two thirds of the graduates is lacking. Nevertheless, the findings support the center's manner of operation. The findings are corroborated by similar conclusions received from different sources. Findings from evaluations by the staff are compatible with those from an analysis of responses provided by clients. Findings received from the Israel Police provide substantial support. Police records show no further criminal activity for over 95% (n=41) of the graduates after completing treatment at the center. Granted, this does not guarantee that no offenses were committed; however these official data provide support and encouragement for the present course of action.

 

"What is beautiful is good" or "Boomerang effect"
of offender's attractiveness?
Shechory-Bitton Mally & Zvi Liza
Ariel University, Israel
liza.zvi@live.biu.ac.il

 

A fair number of laboratory experiments on mock-jurors' decisions have shown that physically attractive defendants are generally considered less responsible for their crimes, and are less likely to be convicted and punished severely than their unattractive counterparts. This bias is commonly termed the "what is beautiful is good". However, some research challenged these assumptions by showing that the nature of the crime affects the judgments of sentencing. When the offense was unrelated to attractiveness, the unattractive defendant was punished more severely than was the attractive defendant, but when the offense was attractiveness-related, the attractive defendant was treated more severely (a "boomerang effect"). The current study was undertaken in order to expand on the knowledge regarding the effect of physical attractiveness in swindling offences, as well as regarding attribution of blame toward the felon and victim. It had two major goals: a first goal was to re-examine the effect of physical attractiveness in a swindling situation, in light of insufficient research on this issue and conflicting results. Due to inconsistent results in previous studies, we had no a priori assumptions. We expected either a leniency effect or a boomerang effect. A second goal was to examine whether an attractiveness effect is moderated by the role of blame attributions toward the offender and victim. We speculated that if a boomerang effect of attractiveness exists it should also be evident in increased or similar blame attributions toward the attractive swindler. We also expected that the participants' blame attributions toward the victim would be related to their blame attributions toward the swindler. The results indicated that there was no leniency bias in punishing the attractive swindler. Victim-offender blame attributions were inversely related to one another. Thus, attributing more blame to the victim meant attributing less blame to the offender and vice versa.

 

Dilemmas of Maritime Piracy Mobile Crime Scenes:
The case of East Africa
Simons Sarah Agnela
Cardiff University, Wales - United Kingdom
Sagnelasimons@gmail.com

 

This paper will present some research findings from an academic empirical research project undertaken by the presenter towards a doctoral degree at Cardiff University in the United Kingdom. The thesis is entitled An Analysis of Maritime Piracy in East Africa between 2000 and 2011 and its Impact on the Welfare of Seafarers.
Between 2000 and 2011 isolated incidents of illegal boarding of ships and the taking hostage of crewmembers evolved from a few random attacks into a lucrative kidnap-for-ransom crime enterprise. Pirates attacked and often successfully boarded ships, and kidnapped the crew until ransom was paid. With time, ransom amounts and hostage duration increased and the modus operandi of pirates became more sophisticated in response to international armed naval patrols and surveillance.
While aeroplanes hijackings receive media attention, are relatively-quickly resolved and are well investigated, ships as mobile crime scenes remain a new frontier for crime analysts and crime scene investigators alike. Additionally, piracy crimes are difficult to prosecute due to the global nature of the shipping industry - multi-national character of ship crews working in a mobile workspace spanning multiple-jurisdictions in the 21st century Global Political Economy. These factors are compounded by a volatile security situation in weak/failed states in the Horn of Africa, and the lack of a maritime security strategy in the 'top piracy hotspot'.
In this presentation, the author will highlight the dilemma facing crime scenes officers and prosecutors in preparing watertight cases, citing the complex nature of interactions between different stakeholders in the maritime industry, including the victim(s), the offenders and the bystanders. The presentation will also seek to illuminate the role(s) each stakeholder assumes in response to piracy incidents. In so doing, the presenter, who is a trained crime investigator, will present to the audience possible challenges in piracy evidence collection and in protecting the integrity of evidential material.

 

Moral judgment among Nazi perpetrators and bystanders:
Integration of personality and social role information
Tevelev Vitali
Matzpen Psychological Counseling Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
t.vitali@gmail.com

 

There is broad agreement in the psychological literature concerning personality traits among Nazi perpetrators, as well as bystanders, as indicators of Nazis' moral judgment. From a sociological perspective, scientists attributed the nature of the moral judgment of Nazis to social trends in Nazi Germany, and introduced terms such as "banality of evil", "ordinary men" and "bystanders". They also disapproved of the existence of the Nazis' psychopathic moral judgment. Researchers implied that Nazis' moral judgment was a natural outcome of the National-Socialist's education and propaganda.
The theory of judgmental modularity has demonstrated that an individual's moral judgment is changeable as a function of social motivation or of a spontaneous situation-specific judgmental role. In the light of the theory, it might be implied that Nazis' moral judgment was shaped by the ideology of National Socialism, while after WWII it changed to matched new ideologies of Soviet-controlled East Germany and pro-American-capitalist West Germany. In order to examine the relative weight (importance) of variables such as personality traits and social impact on Nazis' moral judgment, these variables were examined among Israeli neo-Nazi offenders. This preliminary study was conceived in terms of the Functional Theory of Cognition and its methodological counterpart – Functional Measurement. This method enables the production of a participant's cognitive schema of moral judgment, in which the score of moral judgment depends jointly on information about authoritarian personality (authoritarian submission, authoritarian aggression and conventionalism) and judgmental perspectives (assailant and victim).
The participants assigned a meaningful ratio of importance to each component of authoritarian personality and exhibited noticeable change of moral judgment as a function of a spontaneous situation-specific judgmental role. These anecdotal findings require a more extensive, controlled study, not only to confirm or refute the results of the current trial, but also to address questions raised, such as whether such a method may be effective in forensic and criminological diagnosis of moral judgment.
Cognitive coping strategy as an emotional response to mass violence in women victims in Kashmir: A psychological approach
Thomas Sharon P.
University of Madras, Chennai
sharonthomas86@gmail.com

 

Women in Kashmir have been living under immensely stressful conditions for years due to territorial disputes and mass violence in the region. Violence and stress are inextricable factors and the women victims strive to restore normalcy by adopting different coping strategies. Cognitive coping strategies are thoughts employed to handle stressors by reconciling emotions and feelings after experiencing a traumatic incident. The regulation of emotions through cognitive processes has been practiced since time immemorial, but not much research has been carried out on the cognitive methods adopted to cope with stress. This study explores the number of traumatic incidents witnessed by women, the source of trauma and nature of abuse they face, and the cognitive coping strategies they use to cope with negative events. To study the nature of individual coping responses to stressful life events, nine cognitive coping strategies were measured: self-blame, acceptance, other blame, rumination, positive refocusing, positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, catastrophizing and refocus on planning. Data was collected from 155 women victims in 6 districts in the Kashmir Valley who have experienced life threatening traumatic incident(s). Results indicate that age is a significant factor in the adoption of cognitive coping strategies, and that older women make more use of cognitive coping methods compared to younger women. Other blame, rumination and catastrophizing were among the most widely used coping methods that the victims use to adapt with negative events.

 

Narrative of a Murderer: What Can It Teach Us?
Timor Uri
Ashkelon Academic College & Bar-Ilan University, Israel
timor@biu.013.net.il

 

Weiss Jehoshua
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
&
Dilmon Rakefet
Bar-Ilan University & Talpiot College, Israel

 

In 2011 a man suspected of murdering his parents was arrested and tried for the crime. During the trial, while still under arrest and without authorization, Gadi delivered his written version of his parents' murder to a reporter, who published it verbatim. This study is a linguistic, sociological and psychological analysis of this version. A narrative is a tool one can use to organize reality, the events and processes that affect him personally as well as his social relationships. The narrative enables the accused to construct a picture that he considers logical and convincing, including accounts intended to neutralize, or at least minimize, his guilt. By analyzing the criminal's narrative, we can understand the narrator's subjective reality, his motivations, and the tactics he uses to neutralize his responsibility. The individual's need for a suitable account relates to his concern for his self-image, which depends heavily on his social image. In a sense, reality as it actually was is less important and significant than the constructed reality as understood by society. The strategies Gadi chose were: 1) denying that he was the murderer, 2) admitting that he was at the scene at the time of the murder, and 3) accusing his twin brother, Dani, of the crime. He resorted to a radical re-interpretation of past events and of the people in his biography. Since it is easier to invent events that never happened than to deny those already proven, particularly when the actual events were dramatic and extreme, he fabricated events he considered compatible with the proven reality, hoping thereby to absolve himself of blame for the murder. He did this by confessing to lesser offenses. The narrative is analyzed from three complementary perspectives—the linguistic, sociological, and psychological.

 

Crime victim rehabilitation and empowerment: The case of Nigeria
Ugwuoke Christopher Uchechukwu
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
christopher.ugwuoke@unn.edu.ng

 

Crime has become the most worrisome social problem in present-day Nigeria. Every Nigerian, and indeed every foreigner, is a potential victim of crime in the country. It is obvious that the unprecedented increase in the number of violent crimes in recent times, such as kidnapping, armed robbery, rape and terrorism, has resulted in a corresponding increase in the number of crime victims in the country. It is however regrettable and in fact, unfortunate that in spite of this deplorable situation, the needs of these violent crime victims have no provision in the country's criminal code. The activities of members of the dreaded Boko Haram in the country have in particular exposed many citizens to untold hardship and suffering in recent times. Government response has largely remained erratic and ad-hoc in nature. Law enforcement agents and even members of the public are also generally passive with respect to helping victims of crime in Nigeria. Crime victims are neglected and indeed marginalized in Nigeria because efforts of the criminal justice system are focused especially on how to punish or care for criminals rather than on how to help crime victims. In fact, Shopeju (1999) has claimed that the objective of the Nigerian criminal justice is simply to "punish the criminal and forget the victim". In the light of the above, the aim of this paper is to discuss the plight of crime victims in Nigeria and, by implication, to emphasize the need to rehabilitate and empower them, especially in the context of the current transformation agenda of the present political administration in the country.

 

"The Silence of Males": Reporting and Under Reporting of Ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) Males Who Had Been Sexually Abused
Zalcberg Sarah
Israel
sarazalcberg@gmail.com

 

This paper focuses on reporting patterns by male Haredi (Jewish ultra-Orthodox) victims of sexual assault and the significance of these patterns. Data was obtained through in-depth interviews with 40 students and graduates of Haredi institutions who had suffered some type of sexual assault. Research findings show that most of the respondents did not report their assault, and those who did, did so many years after the assault occurred. The main factors responsible for under-reporting were the perception of sexual assault as a taboo subject, and the culture of silence in which the victims grew up. Other factors that led to under-reporting were feelings of shame, embarrassment, fear of reactions from the environment, and a sense of detachment from the family. The findings further show a collective denial mechanism, which significantly contributes to the silencing and concealment of sexual abuse and, in doing so, helps perpetuate it. In addition, the study indicates that the cycle of victimization includes not only the men who have been sexually abused, but also their families, who have fallen victim.

 

 

 

עדכון אחרון ב-ראשון, 12 אפריל 2015 00:22
 

 

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