Thermoelectric effect in graphene

The thermoelectric (TE) effect refers to phenomena by which either a temperature difference creates an electric potential or an electric potential creates a temperature difference. This effect can be used to generate electricity, measure temperature or change the temperature of objects. Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensor elements in several industries, owing to their simplicity, user friendliness, and quick response to changes in local temperature, but they are considered inaccurate and not stable enough. Other sensors like thermistors have the advantage of high precision in measurements, but lack the ability to measure local temperature.

Thermoelectric Effect in Graphene