On September 18, 1982, Christian Phalangists committed the Sabra and Shatila massacre...
The Diplomacy and Foreign Policy Research Division in the Middle East and Central Asia Research Institute is promoting scientific research into changes in the region in the 21st century since the major trends taking place need comprehensive research that will encompass the following factors: The changes that have taken place after the ‘Arab Spring’. The ongoing
From a historical point of view the 1948 War between Israel and the Arab states created a new geo-political reality in the Middle East. What was the experience of victory for one side was imprinted as a painful defeat by the other side. Since then, for seven continuous decades, Israel’s relations with its non-Jewish citizens
When the Safavid ruler decided to convert Iran’s religion from Sunna Islam to Shia Islam Iran, then Persia, became a Shi’i empire with a stable and ongoing political system. Unlike the situation in other Shi’i countries in the Middle East, the Shi’a religion in Persia became more and more identified with the political system and
When nations are violently threatened, the choices they make in order to cope with the challenge of war reflect different possible reactions. They may choose to struggle and fight their battles fiercely; they may prefer to surrender. Sometimes, the options lie in-between. The same goes for other challenges that different countries face, such as coping